In Octopath Traveler there are 8 jobs that are different inside combat and while you are traveling the world. Each character has a different job. Ophilia is a Cleric, Cyrus is a Scholar, Tressa is a Merchant, Olberic is a Warrior, Primrose is a Dancer, Alfyn is an Apothecary, Therion is a Thief, and H'aanit is a Hunter.
CLERICA Cleric's talent is the skill Guide. Which allows you to recruit NPCs outside of combat and then summon them into combat to help you fight against enemies. Clerics are the healer class of Octopath Traveler. They have heals that will heal your entire party. They also have damaging spells that are of the "Light" class.
SCHOLARA Scholar's talent is the skill Scrutinize. Scrutinize will allow you to obtain information from NPCs outside of combat. Scholar's have damaging spells that consist of "Ice", "Fire", and "Lightning" classes. Scholars also have access to spells that strike twice. These are particularly useful because this will hit an enemies shield twice and reduce it twice if the enemy is weak to the spell that is cast.
MERCHANTA Merchant's talent is the skill Purchase. This allows you to buy items, usually at a discount, that aren't available elsewhere. This skill is similar to the Thief ability Steal. Merchants also have access to damaging spells that are of the "Wind" class. They can also use a spell "Rest" that will heal them in combat. They also have access to "Donate BP" which allows them to donate BP to an ally. This is one of the most useful spells in the game because it allows you to use your damaging spells on other characters at max BP (3) faster.
WARRIORA Warrior's talent is the skill Challenge. This allows you to challenge NPCs outside of combat. This is usually within towns where NPCs will be blocking houses that have treasure inside. Warriors have damaging weapon spells that will be based on the weapons they can yield. They also have access to spells that will buff their defensive or offensive capabilities.
DANCERA Dancer's talent is the skill Allure. This allows you to recruit NPCs from outside combat, like the Cleric skill Guide, and summon them into battle to fight for you. Dancers have access to damaging spells of the "Dark" class. They also have access to spells that will buff allies. These spells vary from physical/magical buffs to defensive buffs.
APOTHECARYAn Apothecary's talent is the skill Inquire. This allows you to speak with NPCs outside of combat and gain useful information you would otherwise not have access to. This can lead to items hidden in towns or discounts at the Inn or Weapon Shops. Apothecaries have access to damaging weapon spells and spells that can cure debuffs from party members. Apothecaries also have access to the ability Concoct. This allows you to mix items to deal damage to enemies and helpful spells that will heal allies or restore SP/BP as well.
THIEFA Thief's talent is the skill Steal. This allows you to have a chance at stealing items from NPCs. There are certain items in the game, sometimes the most powerful items, and they can only be obtained by Stealing them. Thieves have access to weapon skills along with debuff spells that can reduce an enemy's damage or defensive capabilities.
HUNTERA Hunter's ability is the skill Provoke. This allows you to challenge NPCs, like the warrior's skill Challenge, and defeat them in combat. Hunters have access to a damaging spells. They also have access to Capture which allows them to capture enemies as pets and then they are able to summon those pets in combat. The pets abilities vary from damaging abilities to heals or buffs for the entire party.